Microvascular Decompression (MVD) is a surgical procedure to relieve symptoms caused by a cranial nerve compression. The goal is to move blood vessels that are pressing on trigeminal nerve causing trigeminal neuralgia. MVD is performed under general anesthesia, a small incision is made behind the ear and a hole is drilled in the skull. Under microscopic visualization the nerve is exposed, vascular elements that compress the nerve are dissected, and vessels are mobilized using implants.
MVD is the most common surgical procedure for trigeminal neuralgia, but can also be performed to treat hemifacial spasm and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
MVD is considered the most effective treatment method for trigeminal neuralgia caused by vascular compression: up to 80% of patients are pain free at 5 years.